4 Scientist’s whose works were not appreciated until their death.

They say you know a person’s worth when he’s gone, this statement applies to the men in the article, their works were only appreciated, years after they died.

1. GREGOR JOHAN MENDEL

 An Austrian-born scientist whose experiments gave birth to the laws of inheritance as we know it. Growing up, Johan struggled with his education due to illness and financial constraints. He became a Friar and took on the name Gregor so he wouldn’t have to pay for his education.
while serving as a monk, Mendel started conducting experiments with pea plants to study seven major traits of plants.
From the results of his experiment, he proposed the Law of Segregation and the Law of Independent Assortment
A study that took 7 years and about 28,000 plants was criticized greatly as biologists at that time held on to the theories of blending inheritance which is now obsolete.
well, it wasn’t until 1900, 16 years after his death that three different researchers, each from a different county, published their work which proved that Mendel was right after all.

2. IGNAZ PHILIPP SEMMELWEIS

 A Hungarian Doctor, pioneer of Antiseptic procedures, ”savior of mothers” . . . sadly, these titles were attributed to him, after his death.
Semmelweis worked in a clinic were the mortality rate was high in comparison to a second clinic in the area due to the puerperal fever that was rampant at that time.
Comparing the working conditions of the two hospitals, Semmelweis discovered that the difference between the two clinics was that, while the hospital he worked in involved doctors carrying out Autopsy, the other clinic was for midwives only. And due to the death of his friend who was accidentally poked with a student’s scalpel, Semmelweis was able to conclude that the high mortality rate was due to Contaminations from the doctors.
He then made a policy that student doctors wash their hand with chlorinated lime after autopsy work and before examination of patients. The result was a 90% drop in the mortality rate in the clinic.
Unfortunately, Semmelweis’s hypothesis that the only cause of the puerperal fever was uncleanliness on the part of the medical practitioners was both rejected and ridiculed at the same time. In fact, some doctors took offense at the suggestion to wash their hands and Semmelweis was consequently dismissed from the hospital for political reasons, and with harassment from the medical community in Vienna, he was forced to move out to Budapest.
Semmelweis began to write open letters against the doctors of his time, calling them ‘irresponsible murderers’. His wife and other friends thought he was running mad and so they took him to Asylum where he died 14 days later (possibly as a result of the severe beating from the guards)
Semmelweis’s findings were later accepted after Louis Pasteur developed the germ theory of disease which explained all Semmelweis had been saying.

3. JOHANNES KEPLER

 A mathematician and Astronomer, he proposed a heliocentric solar system. Kepler found it difficult to convince people in his era that the sun, and not the earth, was at the center of the solar system.
This rejection was due to religious beliefs by the Church at that time, and also, partly due to common sense- the sun rises in the east and sets in the west, surely, it goes around the earth.
well, Kepler made further progress on Copernicus’s work, but it wasn’t until decades after his death that his work formed part of the bases on which Sir Isaac Newton proposed his laws of gravitation.

4. AMEDEO AVOGADRO

We all probably know Avogadro’s law which states that equal volumes of different gases contain an equal number of molecules, provided temperature and pressure are kept constant.
This observation was published by Avogadro while he was working as a physics teacher at the college of Vercelli. As a result, he became the first scientist to realize that elements could exist as molecules.
Avogadro’s work, unfortunately, was ignored until 4 years after his death when another Scientist Stanislao Cannizarro presented them at a conference which was called to look into some scientific confusion at that time.
Even after the presentation, it took a decade for scientists to totally agree with it. Now Avogadro is a force to be reckoned with in Chemistry.

8 facts by science on love and romance.

1. Two strangers can fall in love by looking into each other’s eyes

 

Eye contact is a scientifically proven way of making a person fall in love with you. Looking someone directly in the eyes causes their body to produce ‘phenyethylamine’ a chemical capable of igniting love feelings. So, except for a person you really like, don’t tempt ‘brother Cupid’ by your visual actions.

 

2. The ‘butterflies in the stomach’ effect are your body reacting to…you know…

 

 

This effect, known as ‘fight-or-flight’ response is due to increase secretion of Adrenaline into the body system, which causes you to start experiencing funny feelings in your stomach. Unfortunately, these activities can be triggered by the sight of someone you have the falling for…the same feeling you get before writing a test. Damn!
3. Why take Cocaine when you can fall in Love?

 

 

Research shows that falling in love triggers the same sensation of euphoria people experience when they take cocaine. The guys who carried out this research also proved that ‘love at first sight’ is real. Hmmm… this leads to the next point

 

4. There is a scientific explanation for the ‘temporal insanity’ people exhibit when they’re in love.
We all know the infamous song GRENADE by BRUNO MARS, where a full grown man was signing his death warrant by his lips because of a girl who cared little about him.
I’d catch a grenade for you
Throw my hand on a blade for you

I’d jump in front of a train for you 
You know I’d do anything for you 
Oh, I would go through all this pain
Take a bullet straight through my brain
Yes, I would die for you, baby…………

well, study shows that people who are in love exhibit the same characteristics with those suffering from Obsessive-Compulsive disorder; a medical condition in which people are unable to control their thoughts or activities for a period of time. This is as a result of activities triggered in four areas of the brain – media insula, anterior cingulate, striatum, the prefrontal cortex.

 

5. Cuddling can treat headaches like painkillers do.
Oxytocin, a very powerful hormone is released from the brain into the body during a cuddle. And research shows that a dose of oxytocin could work as a treatment for frequent headaches reducing it significantly. In fact, 27% of the patients who partook in the experiment reported that a headache was gone after 4 hours. If only Michael Jackson knew…
6. Holding hands can soothe stress and ease the pain
A research involving 17 couples has given insight into some long-standing puzzles. It showed that couples with strong affection on a long-term relationship, soothe each other in stressed situations or painful experiences by simply holding hands.
So the next time your partner is feeling all stressed out, reach out, and hold their hands…you’ll be doing a lot of good.

 

7. Thinking of love influences creative thinking while thoughts of sex influence analytic thinking

 

 

Weird right?

 

The basic idea in the published journal is that, people in love have their focus on a long-term perspective and this enhances inter-connected thoughts. Thereby leading to creative thinking.

 

On the thoughts of sex, the focus if on the present, concrete details and as such, analytic thinking is enhanced.
I’d like to end on a sad note…
8. ‘He broke my heart’ should be taken literary.
Research has given substantial evidence that traumatizing events, such as break-up or Divorce could cause real physical pains in the heart and even lead to cardiac consequences.
Broken heart syndrome, medically known as stress-induced cardiomyopathy/ takotsubo cardiomyopathy has little to do with one’s health. Tests show that the broken heart syndrome exhibits similar symptoms as a heart attack, the only difference being; no evidence of blocked heart arteries in a ‘broken heart’
so guys, stop mocking your fellow guy when he’s finding it difficult to move on after his relationship hit the rock…he is willing, but the heart is broken!

What happens when we sleep?

Sleep, a real necessity in life, is a fascinating phenomenon that occurs at least daily in our lives.
Before now, sleep was thought to have been an inactive state in which both the brain and the body shuts down in order to rest from the day’s work. But scientists have found out that sleep in itself is an activity in which the Brain is most times more active than when we’re awake.
Sleep has an immense influence on our physical and mental well-being.
Understanding what happens during sleep is the main aim of this article.

THE SLEEP CYCLE

 
We’ve got to know that sleep is a series cycle each consisting of 4 stages. These stages can be classified in 2 parts, the first 3 being non-rapid eye movement (NREM) and the other being rapid-eye-movement (REM).

Sleep begins at NREM-1. it’s that point where we cross from wakefulness to sleepiness, you know that point where your eyes start making slow movements and you’re having a hard time keeping it from shutting? that’s the 1st stage of sleep… NREM1 is that kind of sleep you’re getting into right before the Usher taps you in church.

On to stage 2 where the sleep goes deeper than stage 1. At this point, breathing becomes relaxed, Neural activities are decreased and body temperature drops.
stage 3, is what is known as the ”deep sleep stage”. This is a very difficult stage to wake a person.
Stage 4 sees a transition to REM sleep, the part where most of our dreams occur.
the whole cycle goes between 90-120minutes then we’re back to stage 1 again. each stage vary in length, so as the night goes on, the time for NREM decreases while time for REM increases, this could explain why most times, we are in the middle of a dream when we are awoken for the day, that is because REM sleep becomes very long towards the later parts of the night.

SOME INTERESTING THINGS THAT HAPPEN DURING SLEEP

The time we sleep is the time the brain takes to do maintenance work on the body.Growth hormones are secreted at that time, also hunger hormones are secreted too. There is a general clean up of the body system where toxic waste is cleared away for excretion.
Also, during sleep, the brain sorts out information received during the day. We go through the whole day receiving information from different sense organs of the body, while we sleep, the brain filters out the information not needed while the important information gets ‘cemented in’ , this filtering process is sometimes reflected in our dreams.

Speaking of dreams, ever wondered why we don’t usually act out our dreams no matter how real things might look? well, that’s because we are literally paralyzed during our sleep. Only muscles in the eyes are allowed to move (that’s why it’s called Rapid Eye movement sleep). Muscle paralysis is a method employed by the body to prevent us from scoring the World Cup winning goal, hitting the lecturer who decided to punish us for late coming, and other wild activities we dream of. Although the paralysis is temporal, it is totally important for obvious reasons.
for Parasomnias e.g. sleepwalking, sleep talking. . . this occurs during stage 3 (deep sleep stage). During that stage, the body is less responsive to external stimuli and that’s why it is usually difficult to get the sleep talker to shut up during his conference meeting. Unfortunately, just like other sleep disorders, Scientists have no good clue as to why they occur.
As a matter of fact, much of what we know about ”Sleep” is from studies based on sleep deprivation, but there is hope as more researchers are made and with advancement in technological methods, we might be able to study more deeply the wonderful state called Sleep.